A bilateral air services agreement is concluded between two States Parties, which liberalizes commercial civil aviation services between these countries. Bilateral air services agreements allow designated airlines from these countries to operate commercial flights covering the carriage of passengers and cargo between these two countries. In addition, they normally regulate the frequency and capacity of air services between countries, pricing and other commercial aspects. The Horizontal Air Services Agreement, signed on 25 June 2020, allows each European airline to travel to the Republic of Korea from each of the 22 Member States that have concluded a bilateral air services agreement with the country. Since such bilateral air services agreements have traditionally provided that only airlines owned by a Member State or its nationals and controlled by that Member State and a third country are allowed to fly between that Member State and a third country, the conclusion of the horizontal agreement is beneficial for air carriers of both Parties. An air services agreement (sometimes called an air services agreement, ATA or ASA) is a bilateral agreement that allows international commercial air services between signatories. The SAA covers the basic framework within which airlines enjoy bilateral economic rights to fly two countries. The frequency, frequency of designated airlines of the two signatory countries, points of origin and intermediate points, traffic rights, type of aircraft and tax issues are usually covered by soft spots. One of the first ATAs after World War II was the Bermuda Agreement, signed in 1946 by Britain and the United States. The features of this agreement have become models for the thousands of such agreements that were to follow, although in recent decades some of the traditional clauses of these agreements have been modified (or “liberalized”) in accordance with the “open skies” policy of some governments, particularly the United States.
 In addition to airworthiness certification, BASAs, MoUs and SAAs provide for bilateral cooperation in other aviation sectors, including maintenance, flight operations and environmental certification. Bilateral agreements facilitate the reciprocal certificate of airworthiness of civil air products imported/exported between two signatory States. .