The agreement, signed by ambeth R. Ocampo, Chair of the National Commission on Culture and the Arts, and the Chinese Minister of Culture, Sun Jiazheng, includes five general areas and 17 areas of exchange in the fields of culture, art, history, education, research, books and publications, as well as in film. The program is the 13th protocol for the implementation of the 1979 Philippine-Chinese Cultural Agreement. Since 1975, diplomatic relations between China and the Philippines have been steadily developing. Over the years, several bilateral agreements have been signed to strengthen cooperation and strengthen mutual trust. In 2018, bilateral trade between the two nations amounted to $55 billion. At the end of the visit, a joint press release was issued to report on the agreements between the Philippines and China. Mendiola, R. (2019) DILG: Duterte is different from Marcos. An Asian magazine. August 21. Available at: www.asianjournal.com/philippines/metro-manila/dilg-duterte-is-different-from-marcos/. Internal conflicts and inconsistent political behaviour, such as that of the Philippines in the South China Sea, can be explained by horizontal challenges to roles; and that the evidence that reflects the differences of opinion among Philippine political elites on foreign policy is relatively accessible and transparent, this thesis therefore believes that this theoretical concept can also be applied in the Philippines to take into account tensions in their foreign policy vis-à-vis China.
The following section explains how tensions within China`s foreign policy in the Philippines can be demonstrated by horizontally challenging roles as a theoretical framework. Maitem, J. (2019) The Philippine defence chief is calling for a “diplomatic protest” after the Chinese ship sank fishing boats in disputed waters. South China Morning Post. June 12th. Available at: www.scmp.com/news/asia/southeast-asia/article/3014237/philippines-slams-suspected-chinese-vessel-sinking-fishing. Manila and Beijing became twin cities on November 14, 2005. As part of the agreement signed by Manila Mayor Lito Atienza and Beijing Mayor Wang Qishan, the two cities agreed to increase exchanges and cooperation in the areas of economy, culture, education, urban planning, sport, health and sanitation. General loan agreement of $500 million in preferential loans granted by the Chinese government to the Philippines Framework Agreement on upstream opportunities in the Calamian region, in northwestern Palawan Six government agreements and various trade agreements were signed during the visit: Vibar, I.